• 80% were abused as children or saw their mothers abused.
  • Blame partners for their abusive behaviour.
  • Place unrealistic expectations on partners in order to feel good about themselves.
  • Are jealous and possessive of partners.
  • Tend not to trust other people, and therefore tend not to share inner world with others.
  • Have limited or no social network; partner is closest person they know.
  • Highly emotionally dependent on partner; subject to depression known only to family.
  • Tend to express all negative feelings as anger.
  • Have low self-esteem.
  • Get needs met by control, such as violence and threats.
  • May threaten suicide if partner leaves.
  • Represented across all socioeconomic, educational, racial, age and ethnic groups.
  • Can be very pleasant outside of the home and very unkind at home.
  • Frequently demanding and aggressive in sexual behaviour.
  • Hold very traditional, stereotypical views of male-female roles and relationships.
  • Lack sympathy for partner’s physical and emotional pain.
  • Tend to minimize and deny the abuse.